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石化系专业英语单词(1)-兰州石化学院单招新生“123 百千万”百日素质自我提升启航学习平台
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石化系专业英语单词(1)
发布者:dzxx 发布时间:2016-5-13 9:50:37 阅读:1015

石化系专业英语单词(1)
 
 
任务一  无机化学常用词汇(Words & Phrases of Inorganic Chemistry)
acetic acid醋酸
acid酸
acid-base  indicator酸-碱指示剂
acidic酸性的
addition加成
alkali碱
alkaline碱性的
alkaline metal碱金属
aluminum铝
ammonia氨,氨水
ammonium nitrite亚硝酸铵
anion(negative ion)阴离子
atom原子
atomic structure原子结构
barium钡
bond键
bond angle键角
bromine溴
buffer缓冲液
calcium钙
calcium carbonate碳酸钙
calcium phosphate磷酸钙
calcium sulphate硫酸钙
carbon碳
carbon dioxide二氧化碳
carbon monoxide一氧化碳
carbon-carbon bond碳-碳键
carbonic acid碳酸
cation(positive ion)阳离子
chemical bond化学键
chlorine氯
chromium铬
coordinate bond配位键
copper铜
covalent bond共价键
dissociation constant  解离常数
double bond双键
EDTA乙二胺四乙酸
electrolysis电解
electron电子
excited state激发态
fluorine氟
ground state基态
halogenation卤化
hydrochloric acid盐酸
hydrogen氢
hydrogen bond氢键
hydrogen peroxide过氧化氢
hydrogen sulphide硫化氢
hydrolyze水解
inorganic chemistry无机化学
inorganic compound无机化合物
iodine碘
ion离子
ionic bond离子键
iron铁
lone pair孤对电子
magnesium镁
magnesium hydroxide氢氧化镁
manganese锰
metallic bond金属键
molecular formula分子式
molecular orbital分子轨道
molecules分子
neutral中性的
neutralization中和
neutron中子
nitration硝化(作用)
nitric acid硝酸
nitrogen氮
nitrous acid亚硝酸
oxidation氧化
oxidizing agent氧化剂
oxygen氧
perchloric acid高氯酸
phenolphthalein酚酞
phosphoric acid磷酸
phosphorus磷
platinum铂
polar bond极性键
potassium钾
potassium bicarbonate碳酸氢钾
potassium bromide溴化钾
potassium hydroxide氢氧化钾
potassium nitrate硝酸钾
proton质子
proton acceptor质子接受体
proton donor质子给(予)体
reducing agent还原剂
reduction还原
silicon硅
silver银
silver bromide溴化银
silver chloride氯化银
silver nitrate硝酸银
single bond单键
sodium钠
sodium bicarbonate碳酸氢钠
sodium carbonate碳酸钠
sodium chloride氯化钠
sodium nitrite亚硝酸钠
sodium peroxide过氧化钠
sodium sulfite亚硫酸钠
sodium sulphate硫酸钠
solute溶质
solution溶液
solvent溶剂
strong acid强酸
strong base强碱
substitution取代
sulfur硫
sulfuric acid硫酸
sulphonation磺化(作用)
synthesize合成
the periodic table元素周期表
valence化合价
van der waals bond范德华键
weak acid弱酸
weak base弱碱
zinc锌
zinc oxide氧化锌

任务二  无机化学短文阅读(Readings of Inorganic Chemistry English)
  Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. This includes all chemical compounds except the many which are based upon chains or rings of carbon atoms, which are termed organic compounds and are studied under the separate heading of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is not absolute and there is much overlap, most importantly in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry.
  The bulk of inorganic compounds occur as salts, the combination of cations and anions joined by ionic bonding. Examples of cations are sodium Na+, and magnesium Mg2+ and examples of anions are oxide O2− and chloride Cl. As salts are neutrally charged, these ions form compounds such as sodium oxide Na2O or magnesium chloride MgCl2. The ions are described by their oxidation state and their ease of formation can be inferred from the ionization potential (for cations) or from the electron affinity (anions) of the parent elements.
  Important classes of inorganic compounds are the oxides, the carbonates, the sulfates and the halides. Many inorganic compounds are characterized by high melting points. Inorganic salts typically are poor conductors in the solid state. Another important feature is their solubility in e.g. water, and ease of crystallization. Where some salts (e.g. NaCl) are very soluble in water, others (e.g. SiO2) are not.
  The simplest inorganic reaction is double displacement when in mixing of two salts the ions are swapped without a change in oxidation state. In redox reactions one reactant, the oxidant, lowers its oxidation state and another reactant, the reductant, has its oxidation state increased. The net result is an exchange of electrons. Electron exchange can occur indirectly as well, e.g. in batteries, a key concept in electrochemistry.
  When one reactant contains hydrogen atoms, a reaction can take place by exchanging protons in acid-base chemistry. In a more general definition, an acid can be any chemical species capable of binding to electron pairs is called a Lewis acid; conversely any molecule that tends to donate an electron pair is referred to as a Lewis base. As a refinement of acid-base interactions, the HSAB theory takes into account polarizability and size of ions.
  Inorganic compounds are found in nature as minerals. Soil may contain iron sulfide as pyrite or calcium sulfate as gypsum. Inorganic compounds are also found multitasking as biomolecules: as electrolytes (sodium chloride), in energy storage (ATP) or in construction (the polyphosphate backbone in DNA).
  The first important man-made inorganic compound was ammonium nitrite for soil fertilization through the Haber process. Inorganic compounds are synthesized for use as catalysts such as vanadium(V) oxide and titanium(III) chloride, or as reagents in organic chemistry such as lithium aluminium hydride.
  Subdivisions of inorganic chemistry are organometallic chemistry, cluster chemistry and bioinorganic chemistry. These fields are active areas of research in inorganic chemistry, aimed toward new catalysts, superconductors, and therapies.
 
 
 
任务三  有机化学常用的词汇(Words & Phrases of Organic Chemistry)

acid anhydride酸酐
acyl halide酰卤
alcohol醇
aldehyde醛
aliphatic脂肪族的
alkane烷烃
alkene烯烃
alkyne炔
allyl烯丙基
amide氨基化合物
amine胺
amino acid氨基酸
aromatic compound芳香化合物
aromatic ring芳环,苯环
branched-chain支链
butyl丁基
carbonyl羰基
carboxyl羧基
chain链
chelate螯合
chiral center手性中心
conformers构象
copolymer共聚物
derivative衍生物
dextrorotatory右旋性的
diazotization重氮化作用
dichloromethane二氯甲烷
ester酯
ethyl乙基
fatty acid脂肪酸
functional group官能团
General formula通式
glycerol甘油,丙三醇
heptyl庚基
heterocyclic杂环的
hexyl己基
homolog同系物
hydrocarbon烃,碳氢化合物
hydrophilic亲水的
hydrophobic疏水的
hydroxide羟基
ketone酮
levorotatory左旋性的
methyl甲基
molecular formula分子式
monomer单体
octyl辛基
Open chain开链
optical activity旋光性(度)
organic有机的
organic chemistry有机化学
Organic compounds有机化合物
pentyl戊基
phenol苯酚
phenyl苯基
polymer聚合物,聚合体
propyl丙基
ring-shaped环状结构
saturated compound饱和化合物
side chain侧链
straight chain直链
Structural formula结构式
tautomer互变(异构)体
triglyceride甘油三酸酯
unsaturated compound不饱和化合物
zwitterions两性离子

 
任务四  有机化学短文阅读(Readings of Organic Chemistry English)
  The nature of Organic Chemistry has changed greatly since 1828. Before that time the scientific philosophy known as “Vitalis m” maintained that Organic Chemistry was the chemistry of living systems. It maintained that Organic Compounds could only be produced within living matter while    Inorganic compounds were synthesized from non-living matter. Even the word “organic” comes from the same root as the word “organism” or “organ”. However people like Professor Wohler beginning in 1828 determined that it was indeed possible to synthesize organic compounds from those compounds that were considered inorganic. One of the first organic compounds synthesized from basically inorganic compounds was the compound Urea which is a metabolic product of urine. It was synthesized from Ammonium Cyanate considered a compound produced outside of living matter and therefore considered inorganic. Since then many millions of Organic compounds have been synthesized “in vitro” in other words outside living tissue.
  The building block of structural organic chemistry is the tetravalent carbon atom. With few exceptions, carbon compounds can be formulated with four covalent bonds to each carbon, regardless of whether the combination is with carbon or some other element. The two-electron bond, which is illustrated by the carbon-hydrogen bonds in methane or ethane and the carbon-carbon bond in ethane, is called a single bond. In these and many related substances, each carbon is attached to four other atoms:
 

  There exist, however, compounds such as ethene (ethylene), C2H4, in which two electrons from each of the carbon atoms are mutually shared, thereby producing two two-electron bonds, an arrangement which is called a double bond. Each carbon in ethene is attached to only three other atoms:

 

  Similarly, in ethyne (acetylene), C2H2, three electrons from each carbon atom are mutually shared, producing three two-electron bonds, called a triple bond, in which each carbon is attached to only two other atoms:

  By convention, a single straight line connecting the atomic symbols is used to represent a single (two-electron) bond, two such lines to represent a double (four-electron) bond, and three lines a triple (six-electron) bond. Representations of compounds by these symbols are called structural formulas; some examples are

  To save space and time in the representation of organic structures, it is common practice to use “condensed formulas” in which the bonds are not shown explicitly. In using condensed formulas,normal atomic valences are understood throughout. Examples of condensed formulas are

  Another type of abbreviation that often is used, particularly for ring compounds, dispenses with the symbols for carbon and hydrogen atoms and leaves only the lines in a structural formula. For instance, cyclopentane, C5H10, often is represented as a regular pentagon in which it is understood that each apex represents a carbon atom with the requisite number of hydrogens to satisfy the tetravalence of carbon:

 
任务五  分析化学常用词汇(Words & Phrases of Analytical Chemistry)

absolute error绝对误差
Accuracy准确度
analyte(被)分析物
assay化验
background背景
blank空白
calibration校准,标度,刻度
coefficient of variation变异系数
confidence level置信水平
constituent成分
detection limit检出限
determination测定
sensitivity灵敏度   
significant figure有效数字
solubility product溶度积
Specificity专属性
standard addition标准加入法
standard deviation标准偏差
standardization标定法
stoichiometric point化学计量点
systematic error系统误差
titration滴定
validation of methods方法的有效性
equivalent point等当点
estimation估算
gross error总误差
impurity杂质
indicator指示剂
interference干扰
internal standard内标
level of significance显著性水平
limit of quantitation定量限
masking掩蔽
matrix基体
precision精确度
primary standard原始标准物
purity纯度
qualitative analysis定性分析
quantitative analysis定量分析
random error偶然误差
reagent试剂
relative error相对误差
relative standard deviation(RSD) 相对标准偏差
Robustness耐用性
Ruggedness重现性
sample样品
Selectivity选择性
 
 

任务六  分析化学短文阅读(Readings of Analytical Chemistry English)
  Analytical chemistry is the science of making quantitative measurements. In practice, quantifying analytes in a complex sample becomes an exercise in problem solving.
Titration
  Titration is the quantitative measurement of an analyte in solution by completely reacting it with a reagent solution. The reagent is called the titrant and must either be prepared from a primary standard or be standardized versus a primary standard to know its exact concentration.
  The point at which all of the analyte is consumed is the equivalence point. The number of moles of analyte is calculated from the volume of reagent that is required to react with all of the analyte, the titrant concentration, and the reaction stoichiometry.
  The equivalence point is often determined by visual indicators are available for titrations based on acid-base neutralization, complexation, and redox reactions, and is determined by some type of indicator that is also present in the solution. For acid-base titrations, indicators are available that change color when the pH changes. When all of the analyte is neutralized, further addition of the titrant causes the pH of the solution to change causing the color of the indicator to change.
  If the pH of an acid solution is plotted against the amount of base added during a titration, the shape of the graph is called a titration curve. All acid titration curves follow the same basic shapes.

Strong Acid Titration Curve
  At the beginning, the solution has a low pH and climbs as the strong base is added. As the solution nears the point where all of the H+ are neutralized, the pH rises sharply and then levels out again as the solution becomes more basic as more OH- ions are added.
  Manual titration is done with a buret, which is a long graduated tube to accurately deliver amounts of titrant. The amount of titrant used in the titration is found by reading the volume of titrant in the buret before beginning the titration and after reaching the endpoint. The difference in these readings is the volume of titrant to reach the endpoint. The most important factor for making accurate titrations is to read the buret volumes reproducibly. The figure shows how to do so by using the bottom of the meniscus to read the reagent volume in the buret.

  The end point can be determined by an indicator as described above or by an instrumental method. The most common instrumental detection method is potentiometric detection. The equivalence point of an acid-base titration can be detected with a pH electrode. Titrations, such as complexation or precipitation, involving other ions can use an ion-selective electrode (ISE). UV-vis absorption spectroscopy is also common, especially for complexometric titrations where a subtle color change occurs.
  For repetitive titrations, autotitrators with microprocessors are available that deliver the titrant, stop at the endpoint, and calculate the concentration of the analyte. The endpoint is usually detected by some type of electrochemical measurement. Some examples of titrations for which autotitrators are available include:
  ·         Acid or base determination by pH measurement with potentiometric detection.
  ·         Determination of water by Karl Fischer reagent (I2 and SO2 in methyl alcohol and pyridine) with coulometric detection.
  ·         Determination of Cl in aqueous solution with phenylarsene oxide using amperometric detection.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 

任务一  常用的石化、炼油工艺流程词汇

连续过程continuous process
间歇过程batch process
工艺叙述process description
工艺特点process feature
操作operation
反应reaction
副反应side reaction
絮凝flocculation
浮洗flotation
倾析decantation
催化反应catalytical reaction
萃取extraction
中和neutralization
水解hydrolysis
过滤filtration
干燥drying
还原reduction
氧化oxidation
氢化hydrogenation
分解decomposition
离解dissociation
合成synthetics
吸收absorption
吸附adsorption
解吸desorption
结晶crystallization
溶解solution
调节modulate
控制control
悬浮suspension
循环circulation
再生regeneration
再活化reactivation
沥取leaching
破碎crushing
煅烧caloination
沉降sedimentation
沉淀precipitation
气化gasification
冷冻refrigeration
固化、结晶solidification
包装package
升华sublimation
燃烧combustion
引烧ignition
蒸馏distillation
碳化carbonization
压缩compression

任务二  常用的化学物质及特性词汇       

固体solid
液体liquid
气体gas
化合物compound
混合物mixture
粉powder
片状粉未flake
小粒granule
结晶crystal
乳化物emulsion
氧化物oxidizing agent
还原剂reducing agent
有机物organic material
真空vacuum
母液master liquor
富液rich liquor
贫液lean liquor
萃出物extract
萃余物raffinate
絮凝剂flocculants
冷冻盐水brine
酸度acidity
浓度concentration
碱度alkalinity
溶解度solubility
凝固点solidificalion point
沸点boiling point
熔点melting point
蒸发率evaporation rate
粘度viscosity
吸水的water absorbent(a)
无水的anhydrous(a)
外观appearance
无色的colorless(a)
透明的transparent(a)
半透明的translucent
密度density
比重specific gravity
催化剂catalyst
燃烧combustion
引燃ignition
自然点self-ignition temperature
可燃气体combustible gas
可燃液体inflammable liquid
易燃液体volatile liquid
爆炸混合物explosive mixture
爆炸性环境
explosive atmosphere(environment)
爆炸极限
explosive concentration limit
废水waste water
废液waste liquid
废气off-gas
噪声noise pollution
成分composition
挠度deflection
力和力矩force and moment
弯矩bending moment
应力-应变曲线
stress-strain diagram
百分比percentage
环境温度ambient temperature
工作温度operating
设计温度
design temperature(pressure)
相对湿度RH=relative humidity
油渣、淤泥sludge
杂质impurity

任务三  石油化工经典短文阅读

1. Origin of Oil and Gas

  Oil and gas result mostly from dead microorganisms buried quickly in anoxic environments, where oxygen is so scarce that they do not decompose. This lack of oxygen enables them to maintain their hydrogen-carbon bonds, a necessary ingredient for the production of fossil fuels. Newly developing ocean basins, formed by plate tectonics and continental rifting (deformation), provide just the right conditions for rapid burial in anoxic waters.  Rivers fill these basins with sediments carrying abundant organic remains. Because the basins have constricted water circulation, they also have lower oxygen levels than the open ocean.
  Plate tectonics is also responsible for creating the "pressure cooker" that slowly matures the organics into oil and gas. This process usually takes millions ofyears, giving the oil and gas deposits time to migrate around the globe on the back of plate movements.  Because these hydrocarbons are much more buoyant than water, they eventually force their way to the surface. Alternatively, rifting, collisions between landmasses, and other tectonic forces can free the mature oil and gas from deep within sedimentary basins and then trap these organic fluids in reservoirs before they escape to the earth's surface.  We know these reservoirs as oil and gas fields.
  The same plate tectonics that creates the locations and conditions for anoxic burial is also responsible for the geologic paths that these sedimentary basins subsequently take. Continental drift, subduction (where one plate thrusts under another) and collision with other continents provide the movement from swamps, river deltas and mild climates --- where most organics are deposited --- to the poles and deserts, where they have ended up today by coincidence.
【课文参考译文】
石油和天然气的成因
    石油和天然气大多是由缺氧环境下迅速被掩埋的死亡微生物生成的。这种环境氧气奇缺致使这些微生物无法分解。氧气的缺乏能够使那些死去的微生物保持它们的碳氢键——这是产生化石燃料的一种必要组分。由板块构造运动和大陆裂谷作用(变形)而新近演化形成的大洋盆地,正好为在缺氧水域的快速埋藏提供了合适环境。河流携带着丰富的有机残余物充填这些盆地。由于这些盆地的水循环受到局限。因此,它们的含氧量比开阔大洋更低。
    板块构造还形成了一个使有机质缓慢成熟演化成石油和天然气的“压力锅”。油气生成过程通常要经历数百万年,从而为在板块运动背景下油气的运移提供了时间。因为烃类化合物比水的浮力大,所以它们最终会竭力上升到地表。同时裂谷作用,板块之间的碰撞以及其它构造力可以将沉积盆地深处成熟的石油或者天然气释放出来,并在这些有机流体逸散到地表之前,将它们圈闭在油气藏中,我们称这些油气藏为油气田。
    为缺氧条件下微生物的埋藏提供了空间和条件的板块构造运动同样对这些沉积盆地的后期地质演化起着重要作用。大陆漂移、俯冲(一个板块俯冲到另一板块之下的过程)以及和其它大陆的碰撞作用能使沼泽、河流三角洲和温带气候区(大部分有机质沉积的地方)恰巧演变成现今的极地和沙漠环境。

2. Petrochemicals

  Petrochemicals are generally chemical compounds derived from petroleum either by direct manufacture or by indirect manufacture as by-products from the variety of processes that are used during the refining of petroleum. Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oils, lubricating oils, waxes, asphalts, and the like are excluded from the definition of petrochemicals, since they are, not, in the true sense, chemical compounds but are in fact intimate mixtures of hydrocarbons.
  The classification of materials such as petrochemicals is used to indicate the source of the chemical compounds, but it should be remembered that many common petrochemicals can be made from other sources, and the terminology is therefore a matter of source identification.
  The manufacture of chemicals from petroleum is based on the ready response of the various compound types to basic chemical reactions, such as oxidation, halogenation, nitration, dehydrogenation, addition, polymerization, and alkylation. The low-molecular-weight paraffins and olefins, as found in natural gas and refinery gases, and the simple aromatic hydrocarbons have so far been of the most interest because it is these individual species that can readily be isolated and dealt with. A wide range of compounds is possible, many are being manufactured, and we are now progressing the stage in which a sizable group of products is being prepared from the heavier fractions of petroleum. For example, the various reactions of petroleum heavy ends, in particular the asphaltenes, indicate that these materials may be regarded as chemical entities and are able to participate in numerous chemical or physical conversions to, perhaps, more useful materials. The overall effect of these modifications is the production of materials that either afford good-grade aromatic cokes comparatively easily or the formation of products bearing functional groups that may be employed as a nonfuel material.
【课文参考译文】
石化产品
    石化产品通常指直接或间接地从石油中提炼的化合物,这些化合物往往是石油炼制各种过程中产生的副产品。汽油、煤油、燃料油、润滑油、石蜡、沥青以及诸如此类的产品不属于石化产品。因为,从严格意义上说,它们不是化合物,而是烃类的混合物。
    像“石化产品”这样的物质分类用来表明化合物的来源。但应记住,许多我们所熟知的石化产品也可以通过其他途径生产,因而这一术语只是用来识别原料的来源。
    从石油生产化学品是基于各种类型的化合物对各种基本化学反应响应迅速,如氧化反应、卤化反应、硝化反应、脱氢反应、加成反应、聚合反应和烷基化反应。迄今为止,人们最感兴趣的是从天然气和炼厂气中所得到的低分子量链烷烃和烯烃,以及轻质芳烃,因为这些物质能够进行迅速分离和处理。大量化合物都有望得到,其中许多化合物正在生产。目前我们正在探索如何从石油的重质馏分中提炼数量可观的产品。比如石油重质馏分,尤其是沥青质的各种反应表明可以将这些物质当做化学单体,能够通过各种化学和物理反应将其转变成更有价值的产品。这些转化的总体效果是,所生产的物质能够相对容易地用作高品质芳焦,或者能够形成带有官能团的产品,用作非燃料原料。

 
 

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